Economic Impact of Indian Country Tourism
Table of Contents
- State of Indian Country Tourism
- American Indian, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian-Owned Businesses
- Overseas Tourism
- Tribal Gaming
- Tribal Nation Economies
- Tribal tourism enterprises are remarkably upbeat about tourism prospects, with nearly 75 percent indicating they believe tourism will increase greatly (28%) or somewhat (47%) in the coming year.
- Although tribal tourism enterprises welcome visitors from a variety of international markets, more than one third (34%) indicated Germany is a top inbound market. The second-most important markets are China (28%) and Canada (24%).
- In general, tourism entities attribute increases in visitation to increased marketing efforts (58%). To a lesser extent growth is attributed to increased political support (18%),
- One third (33%) of respondents indicated they expect to increase tourism employment for the coming year.
Source: AIANTA’s State of Indian Country Tourism; Spring 2019
Total American Indian, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian (AIANNH)-owned businesses (across all sectors), reflecting a 22% percent growth from 2007 to 2012. (Growth of all U.S. firms was just 2% during that same period.)
Receipts for all American Indian and Alaska Native-owned businesses in 2012. (Excludes Native Hawaiians; source: U.S. Census Press Release)
In 2012, there were 67,248 AIANNH hospitality-related businesses in the United States, reflecting a 59% growth since 2007. This growth rate well surpassed the 22% growth rate of all AIANNH businesses and the 2% growth rate of all American firms.
Hospitality sectors include all businesses included in the Census-designated “Art, Entertainment & Recreation,” “Accommodation & Food Services,” “Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing & Hunting” and “Retail Trade” NAICS categories.
Total receipts for all AIANNH hospitalitysector businesses in 2012 equalled $7.681 billion.
The increase in paid employees in AIANNH businesses (across all hospitality sectors.)
- In 2017, nearly five percent of the 40 million overseas visitors to the United States reported visiting an American Indian community (VAIC) during their travels.
- Overseas VAIC travelers stay longer in the U.S. than the average overseas traveler and visit more destinations.
Data source: Visit American Indian Communities, 2017 Market Profile, from the National Travel & Tourism Office. This profile contains inbound traveler volume and profile trends for residents of overseas countries who visited the United States and visited an American Indian community during their trip.
- How to Understand and Benefit from Domestic and International Tribal Tourism Research and Data; Julie Heizer; AITC 2018
- Top International Markets For Native American Tourism; Ron Erdman; AITC 2017
The Economic Impact of Tribal Gaming
- $105 billion in output (value of sales);
- 676,000 jobs (measured as FTEs);
- $36 billion in wages to employees; and
- $15 billion in taxes and revenue share payments to federal, state and local governments.
Source: The Economic Impact of Tribal Gaming: A State-by-State Analysis, November 2018
- 63,000 jobs statewide (2014)
- An addtional 21,000 jobs in non-gaming operations, a nearly 50% increase in just 2 years
- $3.3 billion in worker earnings
- $400 million in state & local tax revenue
- An addtional $80 million in state & local tax revenue
- $7.8 billion in economic output
- Added $5 billion in value to the California economy
- An additional $3.3 billion in non-gaming economic output
Source: 2016 California Tribal Government Gaming Impact Study, January 2015
Connecticut Tribes–Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation
- $273 million–Revenue from the Mashantucket Pequot and Mohegan Tribes in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2018 was $273 million, nearly a third of the $921 million Connecticut realized in corporation tax revenue for the same year.
Connecticut Tribes–Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation
- 12.8 million visits–Foxwoods and the Tribe’s allied businesses attract more than 12.8 million visits per year—an average of 35,000 visits daily; More than 75% of Foxwoods’ gaming dollars in 2017 came from out-of-state patrons.
- 12,500 jobs–MPTN employed 12,500 people in Connecticut in 2017; 9,702 people were employed at the Mashantucket Pequot Reservation.
- 6,772 empoloyees at Foxwoods and other tribal enterprises..
- 2,386 employees in non-tribal retail stores and restaurants on the reservation.
- $1.1 billion–estimated direct, indirect, and induced impacts of the economic activity of the Mashantucket Pequot Reservation in 2017.
- $145 million–Direct Connecticut state and local government revenue
- $180 million payroll–Regular and overtime earnings; an addtional $144 million was paid in benefits. More than four-fifths of this Connecticut payroll was paid in the state’s poorest zip codes.
- $31 million in federal taxes–MPTN withheld $31 million in federal income taxes, $8.8 million in state income taxes, and $40 million in Social Security and Medicare taxes.
- Eight largest employer in the state–The combined employment of MPTN operations, Foxwoods and other tribal enterprises,and the other businesses located at Foxwoods would rank the Tribe the eighth-largest employer in the state of Connecticut above Wal-Mart and below the University of Connecticut.
- Thirteenth-largest employer in the state–Foxwoods Resort as a single entity ranks thirteenth in the state, above Trinity Health of New England and below Mohegan Sun and The Hartford.
- $2.7 billion–Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation has invested more than $2.7 billion in Foxwoods Resort Casino since its inception.
Source: Economic Impacts of the Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation, July 2019
- 7,361 direct employees by the Five Tribes of Idaho, making them of the state’s top 10 employers
- 13,840 direct and indrect jobs supported by the five tribes of Idaho
- 1,886 workers employed by casinos and related operations
- 500,000+people visit Idaho tribal casinos per year.
- 60% of casino visistors are from out of state
- 506 available hotel rooms at Tribal casinos across the state
- $479 million in earnings (payroll)
- $820 million in gross gaming revenue before payouts and prizes.
- $653 million Gross State Product (represents 1% of the gross state product in 2013.)
- $1.1 billion total annual sales transactions from tribal economic activity, including multiplier effects,
- $39 million in taxes
Source: Economic Impacts of the Five Idaho Tribes on the Economy of Idaho, January 2015
- 23 million visitors–Minnesota Indian casinos attract almost 23 million visitors each year, including
more than 2.4 million from outside of the State of Minnesota.
- Combined, Indian gaming would rank as the second-largest tourism attraction in the State of Minnesota, second only to the Mall of America
- $0.5 billion annual payroll-Tribally-owned casinos and non-gaming enterprises (on and off reservation) pay more than half a billion dollars in earnings and benefits annually to their employees.
- Payroll generates approximately $126 million in payroll-related taxes each year
- 15,287 employees (annual average)
- 13,371 employees at Minnesota Indian casinos and related ancillary facilities;
- 1,916 employees at non-gaming tribal enterprises
- 75.9% of all tribal enterprise employees are full-time;l
- 50.3% female;
- 11.8% tribal members,
- 17.8% members of other tribes,
- 60.6% Caucasia; and
- 9.9% other minorities.
- Combined Indian casinos and related ancillary facilities would
make Indian gaming the 14th largest employer in Minnesota
- More than $717 in annual purchases for goods and services for on-going operations,including more than $482.0 million from venders in the State of Minnesota.
- Over the past 25 years, Minnesota Tribes have invested more than $2.5 billion in their casinos and Tribally owned enterprises both on and off the reservation,
- Neraly $200 million in 2015,
- Another $300 million of
investment (projected) in 2016-17.
Source: Economic Impacts of indian Gaming in Minnesota, August 2016
- 50,000 employees across all Oklahoma Tribal nations
- 96,177 direct and indirect jobs
- $4.6 billion in wages and benefits
- $13 billion impact on the state in 2017
- Tribal nations bring $42.5 million in federal dollars to the State of Oklahoma
- $1.5 billion paid to the state in exclusivity fees from gaming operations (Since class III games were enacted)
- $200 million invested in Oklahoma roads and bridges (since 1980)
Source: Tulsa World, July 19, 2019
- 30,715 jobs–In 2017, Washington tribes recorded more empoloyees than Safeway & Albertsons (8th) and Walmart (9th).
- 55,661 (at least) direct and indirect jobs in Washington are traceable to the economic activity of tribal governments
- $1.5 billion in employee compensation.
- $374 million in new infrastructure: In 2017, tribal governments invested more than $374 million in construction of hotels, community centers, travel plazas, roads, clinics and more.
- 30% growh in income. Average Indian income on Washington’s reservations grew by 30 percent from 1990 to 2017.
- $5.6 billion in direct, indirect,and induced economic benefits. Recurring tribal economic activity yielded more than $5.3 billion in gross state product, which produced an estimated $722 million in state and local government revenue.
- $5.7 billion in gross state product.
Adventure Travel Trade Association
- Adventure travel companies say their travelers are motivated chiefly by “new experiences” and that they want “to travel like a local,” and they’re more motivated by cultural encounters than wellness goals or engaging in adventure travel as a status symbol.
- 43% of adventure travel tour operator clients are between the ages of 51-70.
- Customizable itineraries remain the most requested trip type, though remote destinations and trail experiences have jumped in popularity.
Source: Adventure Travel Trends Snapsot, Adventure Travel Trade Association; 2019